Cell culture is known as the procedure in which cells are grown out of their natural environment and under conditions that are controlled. The conditions of cell culture may vary for every type of cell, however, artificial environments contain and adequate vessel with medium that provide nutrients that are vital such as gases, hormones, growth factors, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates and administers the environment which is physio-chemical. Mostly, cells require a platform of an artificial medium, while other cells can grow in free floating medium of culture. The lifespan of cells is said to be certified genetically, however, if excellent conditions are rendered, certain cell culturing cells have been converted into cells that are immortal that have the ability to reproduce endlessly.
The cells can be isolated for measurement and experimentation in numerous ways. Cells can be purified conveniently from blood but the only cells that have the ability to grow in culture are the white cells. By the enzymatic digestion from enzymes like pronase, collagenase or trypsin that assist in breaking down the extracellular matrix, cells that are mononuclear can be discharged from soft tissues. On the other hand, the method of explant culture can be performed which is the process of parts of tissues being placed in the growth media and the cells that grow out can be used for culture. Primary cells are the cells that are precisely cultured from a subject and have a limited lifespan.
As cells normally continue to separate in culture, they grow and occupy the area or volume that is available which can lead to numerous issues as listed below:
- Cellular differentiation can take place due to cell-to-cell contact.
- Diversity in the pH of the growth media.
- Deficiency of nutrients in the growth media.
- Aggregation of dead cells.
- Cell-to-cell contact can led to contact inhibition causing the cells to stop separating.
Manipulation of cells
The common manipulations that take place in culture cells are transferring cells, media changes and passaging cells. These are commonly achieved by making the use of tissue culture procedures that depend on aseptic technique. This technique avoids bacteria contamination, yeast or other cell lines.
Application of cell culture in two dimension (2D)
Study of stem cells, molecular biology and tissue engineering dominantly includes cultures of cells on plastic dishes that are flat. This procedure is known as two dimensional cell culture which was developed in the year of 1885 by Wilhelm Roux. From the advent of polymer technology comes up today’s definitive plastic dish used for 2D cell culture that is generally known as Petri dish. The interest in matrix fitness is excelling that is useful for:
- Self-renewal of stem cell
- Cancer cell phenotype
- Lineage specification
Crystal Market Research published a report on “2D Cell Culture Market by Type and Application – Global Industry Analysis and Forecast to 2025” released and accessible at https://www.crystalmarketresearch.com/report/2d-cell-culture-market