Soy protein is segregated from soybean. It is produced form soybean meal that is degreased and dehulled. These degreased soybeans are refined into three types of products that are high in protein; isolates, concentrates and soy flour.The isolates of soy protein have been used in foods for its beneficial components since 1959. The prominence of soy protein has increased recently as it is used in various health food products. When the germination of soybean is done, the protein gets digested and the amino acids transport to areas of seedling growth. Soybean contains 2S Albumin storage protein which is small but extremely important in addition to proteins that are metabolic or biologically active like trypsin inhibitors, cysteine proteases, hemagglutinins and enzymes. In early times, Percy Lavon Julianan organic chemist, created world’s first plant called alpha protein, for the confinement of industrial grade. Industrial-grade protein acts as a pigment binder for paper coatings which is the major use of Industrial-grade protein.
Soy protein is useful in a number of foods like meat analogues, frozen desserts, foods for pets, formulas for infants, breakfast cereals, cheeses, salad dressings, beverage powders, breads, pastas, nondairy creamer and soups. Functionally, soy flour glue which is defatted is a substitute for casein glue that expensive. Soy protein is also useful for texturizing and emulsification.Textile fibers, plastics, paper coatings, adhesives, materials for cleaning, paints, inks, resins, polyesters, fungicides and asphalts comprise particular applications.
Soybean protein is considered as complete protein as it provides all the imperative amino acids that are essential for the nourishment of the body. Soybean protein is similar to other legume pulses and is one of the most inexpensive sources of proteins which is the prime reason that this protein is essential for vegetarians. Soy flour consists of 50% of proteins. The rate of digestion of tofu is 92.7%, soy milk is 92.6% and steamed soy beans are 65.3%.
The products high in protein are:
Isolates- the isolates of soy protein are immensely purified and moisture-free and contain 90% of protein. It is majorly used to enhance the texture of meat products and retain moisture. The isolates of soy proteins are available in pharmacies and supermarkets, often combines with various food ingredients.
Concentrates-the concentrates of soy proteins is 70% soy protein and defatted flour of soy excluding the carbohydrates that are water-soluble. It is produced by separating the parts of carbohydrates from the degreased soybeans. The concentrates of soybeans contain more fiber from the original beans. It is widely useful in meat products, bakery products and breakfast cereals. It is used in poultry and meat products to retain fat and increase water in order to enhance nutritional values.
Flour- soy flour is produced by crushing soybeans into powder. It is available in three types; whole or full-fat that contains natural oils, defatted that contains 50% proteins and with high or low water solubility.