Antidiabetics are drugs that are beneficial for diabetes as they lower the levels of glucose in the blood. Oral hypoglycemic agents like pramlintide, insulin, liraglutide and exenatide are more of Antidiabetics. The nature of diabetes, age of a person and the situation are some of the factors that determine the antidiabetics to be prescribed to the person.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 takes place when the insulin in the body is less. The used insulin for this has to be of type 1 as well and has to be injected.
The most prevalent type odd diabetes is Diabetes mellitus type 2 which is caused because of the cells that resist insulin. This type of diabetes can be treated by:
- Substances that boost the amount of insulin emitted by the pancreas.
- Substances that target specific organs and increase their sensitivity to insulin.
- Substances that reduce the rate at which the gastrointestinal tractabsorbs insulin.
Numerous antidiabetics are, primarily given by mouth in a combination are useful for the diabetes mellitus type 2. In type 2 the therapeutic combination is given not because oral substances have failed, but because it provides expected effects. In type 2 the convenience of insulin that is injected is that a patient who is well-educated is able to adjust the dosage, and can even take increased dosage when needed as the sugar in the blood can be measured using a simple meter.
An injection or an insulin pump is commonly used for giving insulin. In cases there are severe insulin is intravenously given, subcutaneously otherwise. The three types of insulin are:
- Insulin that acts rapidly
- long acting insulin
- insulin that acts intermediately
Insulin that acts rapidly consist of:
- insulin lispro (Humalog)
- insulin glulisine (Apidra)
- insulin aspart (Novolog)
- Prompt insulin zinc (Semilente) this might affect a slightly slow
- Regular insulin(Humulin R, Novolin R)
Insulin that acts intermediately consists of:
- Insulin zinc (lente)
- Isophane insulin, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) (Humulin N, Novolin N)
Long acting insulin consists of:
- Insulin detemir (levemir)
- Insulin glargine (lantus)
- Insulin zinc that is extended (ultralente)
Biguanides are also broadly advised as antidiabetic, commonly the first ones. However, in some cases if biguanides are ineffective, alternate medication along with biguanides are given which may vary from advantages to disadvantages. Antidiabetics are not necessarily invented to banish diabetes but to control it and reduce the risk of complexities caused by it. Diabetic patients might have to evade hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia and use antidiabetics for their entire life.